# Roman Numerals

**Roman Numerals** is an old decimal numeric system which represents the numbers as combinations of the following **Latin letters: I, V, X, L, C, D, M (Roman Numerals Symbols)**. By using combinations of these symbols it is possible to record Roman Numeral Numbers. This system based on *7 Roman Numeral Symbols* was invented and used by the Romans starting from the 7th - the 6th century BC and almost till the late Middle Ages. In our times, Roman Numerals are sometimes used for scientific (especially in chemistry, pharmacy, photography, seismology, etc) and some daily purposes (for example, in the names of the monarchs, on the clock face, for page numbering, etc.)

At this website, you can make Roman Numerals Conversion by using our online Roman Numerals Converter, as well as a number of the most commonly used **Roman Numerals Charts**, including the ones for 1-10, 1-20, 1-100, and 100 - 1000. This Roman Numerals Converter is very simple and user-friendly, and in order to make a fast Roma Numeral Conversion, just enter the number to the box on the right and press 'Convert to Roman' button.

## Roman Numerals Examples

These are some examples of *Roman numerals*:

- The current year is 2018, and it is written as MMXVIII with Roman Numeral symbols.
- Year 2017 is written as MMXVII with Roman Numeral symbols.
- Time 12:00 with roman numerals must be written as XII.
- Time 08:00 with roman numerals must be written as VIII.

### Roman Numerals in films

An American horror movie series Saw, directed by James Wan, use **Roman Numerals** in their titles: Saw II, Saw III, Saw IV, Saw V, Saw VI.

Also a space opera movie series Star Wars use **Roman Numerals**: Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace, Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones, Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith.

The Godfather sequels, inspired by the novel of Mario Puzo, numbered with **Roman Numerals**: The Godfather Part II, The Godfather Part III.

Also Sylvester Stallone's Rocky sequels came with *Latin numbers*: Rocky II, Rocky III, Rocky IV, Rocky V.

### Roman Numerals in Monarchs

*Roman numerals* are used to distinguish monarchs with the same name. These are some famous names:

- John III Sobieski was king of Poland and born in 1629.
- Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
- Cyrus II, also known as Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenian Empire.
- King Louis XIV of France, also known as Louis le Grand, was born in 1638. He ruled the country during the one of its most powerful times.
- Henry V of England, was king of his country from 1413 until 1422.

### Roman Numerals in Olympic Games

Roman Numerals are also used to identify sporting events. For example, the Olympic Games, the world's foremost sports competition use Roman Numerals.

A four-year period indicated by Roman Numerals of which the first Olympics in 1896 initiated Olympiad I.

Here are some examples:

- The Games of the XXXI Olympiad (i.e. 31st), also known as The 2016 Summer Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro.
- XXIII Olympic Winter Games, also known as The 2018 Winter Olympics took place in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea.
- The Games of the I Olympiad, held in Athens was the first modern international Olympic Games in our history. It took place in 1896, as MDCCCXCVI with Roman Numerals.
- The XXVII Olympiads (i.e. 27th) began on September 15, 2000 in Sydney.
- The Games of the XXXII Olympiad, also known as The 2020 Summer Olympics were scheduled to be held in Tokyo.
- The 1924 Summer Olympics, alternatively known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad were hosted in Paris. And it was the second time for the city, after 1900.

#### Roman Numerals in Major Arcana Cards

**Roman numerals** are also used in the Major Arcana cards in a tarot deck. There are 22 Major Arcana cards. And all except the first one have Roman Numerals. Each card also has a name. And all of them symbolize the cosmic forces.

- (0) The Fool
- I The Magician
- II The High Priestess
- III The Empress
- IV The Emperor
- V The Hierophant
- VI The Lovers
- VII The Chariot
- VIII Justice
- IX The Hermit
- X The Wheel of Fortune
- XI Strength
- XII The Hanged Man
- XIII Death
- XIV Temperance
- XV The Devil
- XVI The Tower
- XVII The Star
- XVIII The Moon
- XIX The Sun
- XX Judgement
- XXI The World

##### Watch Time Numbers in Roman Numerals

In clock faces and watches, numbers are represented by these Roman Numerals:

I: 1, II: 2, III: 3, IIII: 4, V: 5, VI: 6, VII: 7, VIII: 8, IX: 9, X: 10, XI: 11, XII: 12

As you notice, the numeral 4 is written as Roman Numeral IIII, not IV. The actual Roman numeral is IV of course, but the IIII can also be used. You can see this usage in a lot of modern and old clocks and watches. But it is not a universal form. For example, Big Ben in London uses a regular IV for four o'clock.

##### Roman Numerals Various Examples

- The Wall is one of the best selling albums of all time by Pink Floyd and it was released in 1979. It is written as MCMLXXIX with Roman Numeral symbols.
- A charter of liberties known as Magna Carta Libertatum was signed in 1215. It is written as MCCXV with Roman Numerals.
- 1789 as MDCCLXXXIX, the beginning of The French Revolution. It ended the absolute monarchy in French. And in 1792 as MDCCXCII, the French Republic was founded.
- 1859 as MDCCCLIX, the publication date of “The Origin of Species” by Charles Darwin. It is also the beginning of modern biology.
- The Grapes of Wrath, a novel by American author John Steinbeck was published in 1939. It is written as MCMXXXIX in Roman Numerals.
- 2001 as MMI, the start of the 21st century and the third millennium.
- 1983 is the year that American singer Michael Jackson recorded "Thriller". This year is written as MCMLXXXIII in Roman Numerals.
- Instagram, a popular worldwide social networking service was launched in 2010. This free photo and video sharing app was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. You can write 2010 as MMX in Roman Numerals.

**Roman Numerals symbols**

Roman Numeral | Number |
---|---|

I | 1 |

V | 5 |

X | 10 |

L | 50 |

C | 100 |

D | 500 |

M | 1000 |

Roman Numeral | Number |
---|---|

I | 1 |

II | 2 |

III | 3 |

IV | 4 |

V | 5 |

VI | 6 |

VII | 7 |

VIII | 8 |

IX | 9 |

X | 10 |

Roman Numeral | Number |
---|---|

X | 10 |

XX | 20 |

XXX | 30 |

XL | 40 |

L | 50 |

LX | 60 |

LXX | 70 |

LXXX | 80 |

XC | 90 |

C | 100 |

### Roman Numerals Symbols

Roman numerals can also be written with the unicode symbols as follows.

Symbol | Symbol Name | Dec | Hex |
---|---|---|---|

Ⅰ | Roman Numeral One | Ⅰ | Ⅰ |

Ⅱ | Roman Numeral Two | Ⅱ | Ⅱ |

Ⅲ | Roman Numeral Three | Ⅲ | Ⅲ |

Ⅳ | Roman Numeral Four | Ⅳ | Ⅳ |

Ⅴ | Roman Numeral Five | Ⅴ | Ⅴ |

Ⅵ | Roman Numeral Six | Ⅵ | Ⅵ |

Ⅶ | Roman Numeral Seven | Ⅶ | Ⅶ |

Ⅷ | Roman Numeral Eight | Ⅷ | Ⅷ |

Ⅸ | Roman Numeral Nine | Ⅸ | Ⅸ |

Ⅹ | Roman Numeral Ten | Ⅹ | Ⅹ |

Ⅺ | Roman Numeral Eleven | Ⅺ | Ⅺ |

Ⅻ | Roman Numeral Twelve | Ⅻ | Ⅻ |

Ⅼ | Roman Numeral Fifty | Ⅼ | Ⅼ |

Ⅽ | Roman Numeral One Hundred | Ⅽ | Ⅽ |

Ⅾ | Roman Numeral Five Hundred | Ⅾ | Ⅾ |

Ⅿ | Roman Numeral One Thousand | Ⅿ | Ⅿ |

## Recent Comments

MATH IS THE BEST

Can anyone guess what MMDCLXXVIII is?

Awesome website!

Is mcmlxxx1 1981

What does MCMCX111 looklike

I have SATs in a couple of weeks, THANKS!!!!!

Tiffany Chu - XVI = 16 that is 6 [5(V)+1(I) or (VI)] after 10 (X) = 16

The before and after sequencing is important.

Can someone tell me the Roman numbers to 20/2/2018 please if anyone knows them x

550 in Roman Numerals is DL

You can write 16 as XVI in Roman Numerals

Very useful. Thank you.

Great info, but How do you write 16 as a Roman numeral?

what is MCXXIIIIVVMCX

Love it bros

this is awesome and useful! bookmarked and saved for sure!

IIII = IV

Mandela Effect ...

One of the best(no nonsense) examples I've ever seen online. If you are literate and know simple math then you can learn Roman numerals in 5 minutes with this information. Great stuff

OUTSTANDING Info. Thanks.

what is MMMXCII IN ROMAN NUMERALS

Love this web page. Great info.

#Love it!

:)#love roman numerals

I love math and I love to have more idears on it especially on ROMAN NUMBERS.

Is a hyphen used with sequencing Roman numerals the same way I've always used it...? lets say 1-5 .... how would that be displayed in Roman numerals? I'm wishing I'd paid more attention back in the day...

love

Can you send the roman numerals list to me, I'm almost 9 years old, right now I'm 8/half.

what is MCMV1

Is there a lL I'm playing a game that has that number.

XXVI WITH A LINE UNDER IT Actually says , O.A XXVI

I don't see values for converting back to modern numbers. I'd like to know the number for FELIX.

I know the "IX" is 9 but I don't see the top end numbers in the graph.

Very helpful indeed

how is 1 billion written?

For JavaScript programmers, or anyone wishing to study a very simple algorithm to translate to/from Roman numerals, I've made a silly little polyfill for the native Number type:

https://github.com/penduin/romanumber

Can you tell me in detail how to learn roman numbers with easy method

How would the year 56 BC be shown in Roman Numerals? The Romans did not use BC or BCE in their concept of dates so what year would 56 BC actually have been to them and how does it print in Roman numerals.

I've recently been shopping for a watch and it appears that all watchmakers, when using roman numerals on the watch face, they always use IIII for the number 4 instead of IV, but they always IX for 9. Does anyone know why this is?

This is awesome. I'm only 5th grade hehe.

(49=XIL right?)

Your comment: very educative and reliable.

Very helpful

million

I-ii-iii-iv-v-vi-vii-viii-ix-x-xi-xii-l-c-d-m-m-million

c-cc-ccc-cd-d-dc-dcc-dccc-cm-m and 5000 is m underline

Good information to know

There are some comments that are incorrect. And the start of this only lists half the Roman Numerals.

The list of lower characters are:

: "I" (1), "V" (5), "X" (10), "L" (50), "C" (100), "D" (500), "M" (1000 or 1K).

The list of upper characters, which have a line above the letter (which I can't draw but will represent with ^)

: "V^" (5K), "X^" (10K), "L^" (50K), "C^" (100K), "D^" (500K), and "M^" (1000K or 1 million).

The line above is kind of like an inverted underscore.

Absolutely max 3 characters in a row, and only of "I", "X", "C", "M", "X^", "C^", "M^". The 5x and 10x ones can have 1 before and up 3 after of the 10x that is below it. (IE: IV, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII for 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12)

Thus:

Mary Jane: MCMLII = 1952. ; MCMLCII is not a legal number. The correct would be MCMLXII = 1962.

51A1000: Correct. MDCXVI = 1616.

The 1962 is a tough one to read for some. The "LX" is 60. The "II" is 2. However, one could also read it as "L" = 50, "XII" = 12 and 50 + 12 = 62. :)

The maximum roman number that can be counted is (with ^ representing a line above the character before)

M^M^M^C^M^X^C^MX^CMXCIX = 3,999,999. Breakdown:

(M^M^M^)= 3 Million, (C^M^) = 9 hundred thousand, (X^C^) = 90 thousand, _

(MX^) = 9 thousand, (CM) = 900, (XC) = 90, and (IX) = 9.

There are no legitimate roman numeral for 4 million or above. Most people also don't notice or know that there is no representation of 0 (Zero). This is because 2 thousand years ago people couldn't count what they didn't have. It is why the dewey decimal system goes from 1 to 10 and not 0 to 9.

What is roman 550 look like

1952 is MCMLII

I love this it is so cool so amazing. Now I now my roman numerals

Just using it for fun. Really helpful! I'm only in 6th grade.

MCMLCII

IS THIS 1952?

Thank you for the help I have a Latin test tommrow and I needed to study

I learned new things today